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Stockholms universitet Övrigt
Reciprocity is a key concept for understanding social behaviour. It involves complex interactions of giving and returning. This paper examines the concept of reciprocity to think about, and design for, online social interactions. We argue that reciprocal exchange is symbolic insofar as it produces and enacts many forms of social life by drawing individuals into a relation of recognition. Indeed, reciprocal interactions underlie much online activity, and a fuller understanding of the concept explains important aspects of how social life is conducted with others online. We contrast our understanding of reciprocity with those of more dominant theories of interaction built on the assumption that actions, including those that seek reciprocity, are self–interested or otherwise altruistic. This assumption ignores how social actions that solicit a return–action seek to neither profit nor benefit, but rather express a desire to draw in others into social life and relationships. After analysing three kinds of online activity (web forums, social networking sites, and online games) using our view of this concept, we conclude with implications for designers who seek to support the development of our digitally–mediated social life.
N/A / Link / Pelaprat , Etienne / 2012

Stockholms universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Öman , Sören / 2011

Stockholms universitet Övrigt
978-91-633-1837-5 / Link / Ljung , Magnus / 2007

Stockholms universitet Övrigt
When default leads to exclusion from financial markets, the implied loss of consumption smoothing opportunities is more costly when income volatility is high. A rise in income risk thus makes default less attractive, allowing creditors to relax borrowing limits. I show how, in an open economy, this endogenous financial deepening may reduce aggregate foreign assets in response to a rise in individual income risk, against the precautionary savings intuition. Conditions for this depend on whether default constrains complete or uncontingent contracts. The post-1980 rise in US household income risk strongly reduces foreign assets when domestic markets are complete or world interest rates low.
N/A / Link / Broer , Tobias / 2014

Stockholms universitet Övrigt
The presence of plastids in plant cells requires a higher level of precursor recognition by the mitochondrial protein import apparatus than in nonplant organisms. Although the plant presequences display the overall features observed in yeast and mammals, they are generally longer and more hydrophilic. Most of them are highly organelle specific, but some have ambiguous targeting specificity delive-ring a protein to both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many components of plant protein import apparatus appear different to that in yeast and mammalian systems. The three outer membrane mitochondrial proteins characterized to play role as receptors in plants – Tom20, OM64, and metaxin – are plant specific. However, the channel forming units of the TOM and SAM complexes, Tom40 and Sam50, respectively, are orthologous to these components in yeast. While components of the MIA and TIM complexes also display high levels of orthology, functional studies indicate divergences in function and mechanism. Differences exist also in terms of intraorganellar localization of proteolytic events, e.g., the location of the mitochondrial processing peptidase, MPP, involved in removing targeting signals is different, whereas the function and location of the presequence protease, PreP, degrading targeting peptides, is well conserved. Overall, although the protein import machinery of mitochondria from all organisms appears to have coopted and uses the channel forming subunits from the endosymbiont that gave rise to mitochondria, there is a greater diversity in plant components in comparison to those from nonplant species
9780387897813 / Link / Glaser , Elzbieta / 2011

Stockholms universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Johansson , Petter /

978-9955-12-856-4 / Link / Bielinskiene , Agne / 2013

N/A / Link / Falahat , Saeed /

Recent research underlines that strong branded identities are created through co-creational processes in which multiple stakeholders are actively involved and brand identities are matched with cultural, political, and economic forces in society. However, there is a lack of in-depth research into how organizations attempt to adopt new branding logics. To address this research gap, we conduct a study of a university that is rebranding itself in accordance with a new market-oriented, service-dominant logic. While harmonic value co-creation between the brand and stakeholders is emphasized in an earlier literature, our study shows that attempts to adopt these logics trigger contradictory and adversarial interpretations among stakeholders about the role and identity of the focal actor vis-à-vis their own. We conclude that adopting new branding logics involves struggles and dynamics of power and resistance, which have passed unnoticed in earlier research. Resistance is not only targeted toward the brand's symbolic meanings and conducted by marginal consumer groups to enhance their own identities. Rather, it can also be targeted toward the tangible resource roles that stakeholders are expected to assume vis-à-vis the brand, and conducted by various stakeholder resistors – with the outcome of undermining and shifting the essence of the brand itself.
N/A / Link / Aspara , Jaakko / 2014

Stockholms universitet Övrigt
This dissertation studies legal practice and representation from the perspective of Theatre- and Performance Studies. It aims to describe and analyse the theatrical, ritualistic and spatial aspects of law, its practices, representations and buildings. More specifically, the dissertation explores the trial as a performance.Cultural as well as artistic performances are explicitly structured. Trials, theatre performances, religious rituals, military parades and political demonstrations all raise a boundary that shuts out what is not part of the performance ("life", "the everyday"). Performances also depend on and create an inner order; they structure the social and material space and produce roles and hierarchies among the participants. The dissertation analyses the ways in which the trial in the lower level court in Sweden produces and maintains these outer and inner boundaries. How does law and legal practice produce frames, boundaries and spaces? How, when and as what does law appear? And what is made to appear in front of or under the law? By approaching the legal practice with a theatrical and performative terminology, the trial comes forth as more than a legal process; it appears as a performative, cultural and social event. The study focuses on the courtroom as a space where power is exercised and produced. It is not only the legal power of the judgment that is exercised, but also other forms of power. The court creates, communicates and sustains its authority in the courtroom by using performative, theatrical and ritual techniques of power. In making these different kinds of power techniques visible, the dissertation exemplifies the strength of a performance perspective. By using a terminology and a way of thinking from the study of performing arts, new knowledge of the trial as a performance is produced.
978-91-7447-915-7 / Link / Mattsson , Erik / 2014

Stockholms universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Wanjira , Judith / 2011

Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate ways in which language and communication relatedbarriers may be experienced in learning. Because of increased ICT usage, Project Africa’s Women’sAcademy, that is in focus of the research, felt that some issues regarding language and communicationappeared in another way than before without using ICT. The research was conducted in Lunga-Lunga,Kenya, November 2009 and through Internet communication (e.g. logs, letters stored in a socialnetworking site). The paper mainly draws on literature on ICT and Joseph Kaipayil’s ontology to collectindividual ‘experiences’. The results show that many barriers arise because of cultural diversities amongthe learners; e.g. difference ways of employing concepts and regard the objects in the world. In makingpolicies, therefore, account must be taken on a local and individual level as well as on a transnationaland collective level.
N/A / Link / Hallberg , David / 2010

We simulated the Late Weichselian extent and dynamics of the Eurasian ice sheets using theshallow-ice approximation ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS. Our simulated Last Glacial Maximum ice-sheetextents closely resemble geomorphological reconstructions, and areas of modelled fast flow areconsistent with the known locations of palaeo-ice streams. Motivated by documented velocity responseto increased meltwater inputs on Greenland, we tested the sensitivity of the simulated ice sheet to thesurface meltwater effect (SME) through a simple parameterization relating basal sliding to local surfacemelt rate and ice thickness. Model runs including the SME produce significantly reduced ice volumeduring deglaciation, with maximum ice surface velocities much greater than in similar runs that neglectthe SME. We find that the simple treatment of the SME is not applicable across the whole ice sheet;however, our results highlight the importance of the SME for dynamic response to increased melting.The southwest sector of the Scandinavian ice sheet is most sensitive to the SME, with fast flow in theBaltic ice stream region shutting off by 15 kaBP when the SME is turned on, coincident with a retreat ofthe ice-margin position into the Gulf of Bothnia.
N/A / Link / Clason , Caroline C. / 2014

Deep-sea sediments play a central role in a wide range of subject areas. A number of important controls on the formation of sedimentary deposits have been studied. However, to date, the impact of submarine landscape geometry as a possible control has received comparatively little attention. This seems to be particularly true for intermediate-scale topographic features such as abyssal hills, knolls and seamounts that can be found in many regions of the global seafloor: recent estimates suggest that in the deep open oceans, away from continental margins, there might be as many as similar to 25 x 10(6) abyssal hills, knolls and seamounts. Despite this large number very little is known about how they influence environmental complexity and patchiness, biogeochemical fluxes and the formation of sedimentary records. This paper reviews the currently known types of fluid-flow interactions with abyssal hills, knolls and seamounts that could potentially influence the way sediments are formed. The main types of relevant flow components are: quasi-steady to eddying background flow; internal lee and near-inertial waves; barotropic and baroclinic tides; and seamount-trapped waves. Previous studies looking into systematic links between fluid dynamics and sediments at hills, knolls and seamounts are reviewed. Finally, a case study is presented which aims to combine our current knowledge and investigate whether a given combination of recent fluid-flow components leaves a detectable imprint in the recent sediments on and around a short seamount. The main conclusions and implications are as follows. (1) Topographically generated flow-field geometries that are composed of a number of different prevailing fluid-flow components can be reflected and detected in properties of the underlying sediments. (2) Tidal and other higher-frequency (lee-wave, near-inertial) components of deep-ocean currents can be essential for locally driving total current velocities across threshold values for non-deposition/erosion/resuspension of freshly deposited deep-sea sediments. Moreover, there is evidence suggesting that not only maximum current speeds but also intensities of higher-frequency (tidal and/or (near-)inertial) current-direction variability might control sediment dynamics and sediment formation. This relativises the view that current speed is the main, or even only, controlling factor for sediment dynamics and sediment formation. (3) When it comes to the reconstruction of paleo-flows, these findings imply that certain sedimentary records may well reveal more about variability in the higher-frequency flow components than about variability in the basin-scale net flow component that often is the focus of paleoceanographic studies. (4) Single-core paleo-records from hill-, seamount- or similarly controlled sediment deposits may be biased due to the asymmetry of flow fields around these topographic features. To arrive at unbiased paleo-records for non-fluid-dynamic parameters, the influence of the flow-field geometry would have to be removed from the record first (5) It seems the mechanistic understanding of hill- and seamount-related flow/topography interactions and their links to sediment dynamics is approaching a level that may (a) facilitate improved interpretation of topographically controlled sedimentary paleo-records, (b) help fill in the knowledge gap that exists for functional deep-sea biodiversity at intermediate space scales, and (c) improve predictive capabilities for exploration of economically relevant iron-manganese (Fe-Mn) crusts on seamounts.
N/A / Link / Turnewitsch , Robert / 2013

978-94-9143-119-7 / Link / Ekelund , Bo G / 2012

This article distinguishes between a firm’s corporate business model and business models of its various business units. Our aim is to provide new insights into how executives’ cognitive processes can influence corporate business model transformation decisions. We focus especially on top managers’ recognition of inter-organizational cognitions, that is, such cognitions about the firm and its businesses that are shared by the top managers and stakeholders of the firm in the industries and communities where it operates. We support our theoretical work with an historical case study of Nokia’s corporate business model transformation between 1990 and 1996, which proved highly successful. We find that its transformation involved using the current reputational rankings of Nokia’s businesses as selection criteria for which businesses to retain and which ones to divest – as well as the elimination of businesses which embodied business model elements which were attributed as factors in past business failures.
N/A / Link / Aspara , Jaakko / 2013

This paper draws attention to the urgency of taking into consideration women’s genderspecific needs and interests in the implementation of community-based ICT projects in lifelong learning. We set out this research to understand the constraints of information and communications technology (ICT) in lifelong learning on disadvantaged women. National statistics and data from field studies were used. The constraints and their consequences at national level are often a result of national policies and regulations – or lack thereof – while the constraints and their consequences at local/regional level involve everyday-life occurrences that are present in women's immediate surroundings. Hence, an understanding of both levels is critical. This research is valuable for stakeholders delving into issues of development intervention using ICTs, not only in Kenya but in a broader, global perspective.
N/A / Link / Hallberg , David / 2014

Stockholms universitet Övrigt
Whereas educational policy is mainly concerned with the content of Human Rights Education (HRE), philosophers of education have widely explored the subject and her social condition in terms of social justice education. This thesis draws on philosophers of education in exploring the subject rather than the content of HRE, focusing the study on ontological rather than epistemological aspects of learning. In this thesis learning is explored through narratives, as a relational process of becoming. The turn to narrative is taken against the dominant historical narrative of human rights as a Western project. This turn concerns how claims toward universalism of human rights exclude difference and equally concerns how notions of particularity overshadows the uniqueness in life stories. The concept of uniqueness serves to elucidate the complexity of the subject, not easily reduced into social categorizations, a concept drawn from Adriana Cavarero and Hannah Arendt.
978-01-7447-886-0 / Link / Adami , Rebecca / 2014

This study considers different projections of climate-driven sea-level rise and uses a recently developed, generalized analytical model to investigate the responses of sea intrusion in unconfined sloping coastal aquifers to climate-driven sea-level rise. The results show high nonlinearity in these responses, implying important thresholds, or tipping points, beyond which the responses of seawater intrusion to sea-level rise shift abruptly from a stable state of mild change responses to a new stable state of large responses to small changes that can rapidly lead to full seawater intrusion into a coastal aquifer. The identified tipping points are of three types: (a) spatial, for the particular aquifers (sections) along a coastline with depths that imply critical risk of full sea intrusion in response to even small sea-level rise; (b) temporal, for the critical sea-level rise and its timing, beyond which the change responses and the risk of complete sea intrusion in an aquifer shift abruptly from low to very high; and (c) managerial, for the critical minimum values of groundwater discharge and hydraulic head that inland water management must maintain in an aquifer in order to avoid rapid loss of control and complete sea intrusion in response to even small sea-level rise. The existence of a tipping point depends on highly variable aquifer properties and groundwater conditions, in combination with more homogeneous sea conditions. The generalized analytical model used in this study facilitates parsimonious quantification and screening of sea-intrusion risks and tipping points under such spatio-temporally different condition combinations along extended coastlines.
N/A / Link / Mazi , Katerina / 2013

Stockholms universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Arrhenius , Gustaf / 2005

Stockholms universitet Övrigt
This doctoral thesis investigates the potential of classification methods based on spatial context to infer specific forms of land use from remote sensing data. The problem is that some types of land use are characterized by a complex configuration of land covers that traditional per-pixel based methods have problems classifying due to spectral heterogeneity. The problem of spectral heterogeneity is also present in classification of high resolution imagery. Two novel methods based on contextual information are evaluated, Spatial Relational Post-Classification (SRPC) and Window Independent Context Segmentation (WICS). The thesis includes six case studies in rural and urban areas focusing on the classification of: agricultural systems, urban characteristics, and dead wood areas. In the rural case studies specific types of agricultural systems associated with different household strategies are mapped by inferring the physical expression of land use using the SRPC method. The urban remote sensing studies demonstrate how the WICS method is able to extract information corresponding to different phases of development. Additionally, different urban classes are shown to correspond to different socioeconomic profiles, demonstrating how urban remote sensing can be used to make a connection between the physical environment and the social lives of residents. Finally, in one study the WICS method is used to successfully classify dead trees from high resolution imagery. Taken together these studies demonstrate how approaches based on spatial context can be used to extract information on land use in rural and urban environments where land use manifests itself in the form of complex spectral class and land cover patterns. The thesis, thus, contributes to the research field by showing that contextual methods can capture multifaceted patterns that can be linked to land use. This, in turn, enables an increased use of remote sensing data, particularly in the social sciences.
978-91-7447-887-7 / Link / Nielsen , Michael Meinild / 2014

N/A / Link / Falahat , Saeed /

Developmental processes are carefully controlled at the level of transcription to ensure that the fertilized egg develops into an adult organism. The mechanisms that controls transcription of protein-coding genes ultimately ensure that the Pol II machine synthesizes mRNA from the correct set of genes in every cell type. Transcriptional control involves Pol II recruitment as well as transcriptional elongation. Recent genome-wide studies shows that recruitment of Pol II is often followed by an intermediate step where Pol II is halted in a promoter-proximal paused configuration. The release of Pol II from promoter-proximal pausing is thus an additional and commonly occurring mechanism in metazoan gene regulation. The serine kinase P-TEFb is part of the Super Elongation Complex that regulates the release of paused Pol II into productive elongation. However, little is known about the role of P-TEFb mediated gene expression in development. We have investigated the function of P-TEFb in early Drosophila embryogenesis and find that P-TEFb and other Super Elongation Complex subunits are critical for activation of the most early expressed genes. We demonstrate an unexpected function for Super Elongation Complex in activation of genes with non-paused Pol II. Furthermore, the Super Elongation Complex shares phenotypes with subunits of the Mediator complex to control the activation of essential developmental genes. This raises the possibility that the Super Elongation Complex has an unappreciated role in the recruitment of Pol II to promoters. The unique chromatin landscape of each cell type is comprised of post-translational chromatin modifications such as histone methylations and acetylations. To study the function of histone modifications during development, we depleted the histone demethylase KDM4A in Drosophila to evaluate the role of KDM4A and histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) in gene regulation. We find that KDM4A has a male-specific function and regulates gene expression both by catalytic-dependent and independent mechanisms. Furthermore, we used histone replacement to investigate the direct role of H3K14 acetylation in a multicellular organism. We show that H3K14 acetylation is essential for development, but is not cell lethal, suggesting that H3K14 acetylation has a critical role in developmental gene regulation. This work expands our knowledge of the mechanisms that precisely controls gene regulation and transcription, and in addition highlights the complexity of metazoan development.
978-91-7447-932-4 / Link / Dahlberg , Olle / 2014

This study takes account of the everyday-life experience of a group of women in a resource-poor environment in Kenya. They are part of a group that the Kenyan Government wants to include in their investments in order to enhance social and economic equality. The overall purpose of the study is to learn about the potential impact of such investments on women in resource-poor environments in Kenya. In fulfilling its purpose the study takes into consideration (1) experiences of everyday-life among women in Lunga-Lunga and (2) maps strategies to recognise these experiences. The results of the study are expected to be fruitful as regards planning strategies that are of use for Vision 2030 and the development of Kenyan society. The study was carried out in two steps: the first consisted in participatory action research and the second was a follow-up study. To guide the study the notion of ‘experience’ is critical. During sessions and in letters to their pen-pals, the women express feelings regarding cultural, family, and health issues. For instance, some of the feelings experienced have arisen because the women are isolated from the larger world outside their own immediate environment and lack literacy skills. The study will be useful in planning governmental actions that strive to better recognise and educate citizens–especially women–in resource-poor environments.
N/A / Link / Hallberg , David / 2011

Throughout the last decade, telecentres have provided access to electronic communications as supporting information and communications technology infrastructure for community, economic, educational and social development. While the origins of telecentres can be traced to Europe's tele-cottage and Community Technology Centers in the United States in the 1980s, telecentres have taken on a number of varying forms and approaches. This article illuminates approaches used by telecentre projects in Kenya and Cameroon using behavioural archaeology. Literature stresses that behavioural archaeology refers to understanding the artefact as a tool in human activity and technology as the embodiment of human activity in the artefact. Application of the concept to understanding telecentres sheds light on the nature of the use of technology that leads to the existence of particular results or societal outcomes. Using a qualitative methodology, managers, local contractors, and technicians at local telecentres were interviewed. The results show differing approaches to telecentres purpose and design. In Kenya, the focus is on e-government services, whilst in Cameroon it is on conflict solving among different tribes. In its use of behavioural archaeology, this article adds a new perspective to the challenges of making information and communications technology and electronic media available in resource-poor environments.
N/A / Link / Hallberg , David / 2012

The purpose of the study is to contribute to health and, quality of life, and lifelong learning that would enlighten adolescents and parents safely handle sexual behaviour . A part from secondary sources, the material to a larger degree is supported by field notes, observations, interviews, and conversations. Proper infrastructure is required to introduce a telemedicine system and the Government’s intervention in investment decisions would be highly appreciated. Having a local health care provider for assistance might help to resolve many problems that the patients face.
978-84-615-5563-5 / Link / Hallberg , David / 2012

The present article refers to a case study on the Kenyan Government’s Digital Villages Project (DVP). The Kenyan Government, together with external stakeholders and private contractors, is increasing their ICT investments to provide the entire population with information and communication regardless of demographic factors. In the Kenyan context, digital villages are what normally other countries refer to as telecentres, i.e. a centre that provides services with regard to Internet and telecommunication. In this case, the digital villages also offer education, learning, and e-Government. The present study wants to learn whether DVP is accessible, and appropriate to women and girls in resource-poor environments and, thus, successful. The following questions guided the study: 1. Who are the users of Pasha Centres? 2. How and for what purposes are Pasha Centres used? 3. In what way do Pasha Centres consider local needs (e.g. education, literacy, job, and diversity)? 4. What do users and managers do to encourage female users? The study is built upon observations and interviews. The results show that male users generally believe that women have a lack of knowledge and understanding of ICT. The results also show that what is said by the government is not fully implemented at the local levels. The authors believe, despite this, that DVP has the potential to serve the population in vulnerable areas and that the government should continue focusing on similar projects.
N/A / Link / Hallberg , David / 2011

Stockholms universitet Data- Och Systemvetenskap
Bidrag till Öppet torg Titel: Teknikstött lärande: Tio utvecklingsprojekt vid institutionen för data-systemvetenskap (DSV), Stockholms Universitet. Formen på ditt torgbidrag: Vi kommer att använda multimediala postrar projicerade mot vägg/skärm som presenterar tio olika utvecklingsprojekt inom högre utbildning där IT är en väsentlig del. Deltagarna kan själva bläddra/klicka och navigera bland översikts- och fördjupningsmaterial som även kommer att finnas åtkomligt via egen dator och Internet. En eller flera projektguider kommer att muntligt berätta/svara på frågor. Syftet: att informera om ny forskning/utveckling och skapa nätverk för vidare samverkan med konferensens deltagare. Vi kommer att presentera följande projekt: 1. Sci-Pro: Teknikstödd handledning av uppsatser och avhandlingar 2. IT-didaktik Masterkurs online: Design och innehåll 3. Examination på distans: IT-stöd för att faställa identiteter 4. HyperCaster: Internetvideo för undervisning 5. 3D/DSV: Lärande i 3-dimensionell miljö 6. Mobilt lärande: Översikt och exempel 7. Distansutbildning om databaser 8. Megakurser: att hantera stora studentvolymer med få lärarkrafter 9. Virtuellt Campus: Samverkan DSV och KTH 10. Integration av fysisk campusmiljö med digitala möjligheter för lärande Bakom dessa projekt finns en mängd grupper och medarbetare.
N/A / Link / Hansson , Henrik / 2010