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The relationship between conformity or divergence in the way CEOs and chief financial officers describe the business concept, and profitability, was studied in 20 firms in one industry. Measures were obtained for firm size, profitability, degree of conformity, organizational stability, product development and the CEO's influence on strategic decisions. Controlling for the effect of size, the relationship was analysed in stepwise multiple regression analyses. Conformity was positively correlated to profitability in stable organizations, and (weakly) to divergence in unstable ones. These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of top management team consensus and performance, which suggest that environmental turbulence has a moderating effect on the relationship. It is concluded that environmental contingency factors affect the conformity-profitability relationship by way of organizational processes. Consequently, differences in organizational stability should be taken into account in studying the impact of environmental conditions on this relationship.
N/A / Link / Häckner , Einar / 1993

N/A / Link / Liyanage , Jayantha P. / 2002

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
9979-60-861-7 / Link / Laitila , Lars / 2003

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
9979-60-861-7 / Link / Lindelöf , Peter / 2003

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Novak and Gowin's cognitive mapping and Vee diagrams were introduced as a way of representing knowledge in two academic course settings - accounting and business strategy. The students produced two sets of maps and diagrams, one at the start of each course and one after completing them. The accounting course aimed at helping the students to elaborate and expand their knowledge structure, i.e. to assimilate the material delivered. The purpose of the business strategy course was to impose a specific type of knowledge structure on the students. Changes were more evident in the accounting case. The difference is discussed in light of Novak and Gowin's distinction between education and rote learning. Suggestions for the further development and use of cognitive mapping in teaching are provided.
N/A / Link / Häckner , Einar / 1994

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Nilsson , Anders / 1995

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
This paper discusses the development of research in business ethics and recent directions taken by scholars in the field. We also analyze ethical considerations in systems theory and speculate on the possibilities of examining business ethics from a systemic perspective.
N/A / Link / Nilsson , Anders / 1997

The research questions addressed in this licentiate thesis are; How can small firms acquire competence? What factors can be identified as important for understanding how competence is acquired in small firms? Why are these factors important? Three factor groups are included in building a preliminary model of competence acquisition; the entrepreneur, the business concept, and the competence base which are identified in the literature as affecting competence acquisition. The surrounding environment is seen as a platform for the acquisition of competence. Three different modes of competence acquisition are discussed; internal, social network, and market. The entrepreneurs of four small firms were interviewed where competence acquisition processes were in focus. The processes in each firm are, first, analyzed separately. Second, a between-process analysis is conducted in each firm and, third, a between-firm analysis is carried out where aspects of the factor groups are brought out. The phenomenon concerning competence acquisition is very complex. The factor groups do not only, per se, affect acquisition of competence. Aspects of the factor groups may, in fact, express a more complex picture of how the factors affect acquisition of competence. The modes of competence acquisition appear in combinations and sequences. Competence acquisition processes are built in sequences over time. Strategies in competence acquisition emerge in patterns that develop.
N/A / Link / Malmström , Malin / 2002

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
This thesis revolves around archivists' current situation, and the fact that information technologies nowadays are tools that creates digital official documents which must be preserved for long-term. I have studied how the technologies affects and eventually changes archivists work practice and situation, and what recommendations that can be identified, in order to make sure that archivists' work practice runs smoothly in the future. That is, the research involves how archivists experience their situation, how they look at information technologies and long-term digital preservation, and also which areas they mainly focuses on, or feels most concerned about. My research consists of participatory observations conducted while following an archivist a couple of times each month for more than a year, data gathering at an archival conference for county council archivists, a future workshop and finally a focus group interview with archivists working at an existing e-archive. During my research I have focused on things or phenomena that engage archivists and causes problems in their daily work practice. These phenomena I have divided into the following themes: work practice, cooperation and communication, organisation, professional roles and competence, resources, attitudes, information technology, and finally laws and regulations. My research shows that there is lack of knowledge in archival matters among other professional groups in the organisations, which makes the archivists work practice unwieldy. Archivists must constantly remind, educate and support other personnel involved in archiving. The archivists express that they are ascribed low status in their organisations and that archiving is neglected and low-prioritised - something that is conducted when other work task are done. Concerning long-term digital preservation the archivists ask for The Solution, since they lack knowledge in information technologies. Moreover, archivists express that there are lack of knowledge in archiving, mainly among management andIT-personnel. Meanwhile archivists work rather alone, with little or none cooperation with IT-personnel. IT-departments are said to run their own race and archivists get not enough support from management. Cooperation and communication seem to be non-existing among these groups. Today many organisations do not have any strategies for long-term digital preservation. Often it is the archivists that are regarded to be the problem owner of this issue. In connection to this I have found that archivists are unsure of their own role and mission, and what competence they should possess. They claim that archivists are mainly connected with paper, and thereby they are shut out from long-term digital preservation issues. Moreover, archivists are not involved when e.g. new computer based systems are to be designed or implemented. Because of this archivists cannot influence the archival creation from the beginning. Lack of resources is also expressed by archivists, and involves lack of time, finances, personnel and competence. Moreover, information technology has caused that the respect for laws and regulations are declining, and digital documents are not regarded as official. Conclusions drawn are that there is lack of understanding of archivists work practice among other professional groups in the organisations. Archivists are expected to take care of and preserve information that exists in technologies with which they are not comfortable. Organisations has left the responsibility for long-term digital preservation to archivists alone, since the organisations have not succeeded in establishing cooperation and communication among concerned professional groups, especially archivists, IT personnel and management. This could seem as a paradox, since archivists are not involved when computer based systems are at stake, systems that generates the official documents that the organisation is obliged to
N/A / Link / Runardotter , Mari / 2007

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Self-interstitials in silicon aggregate to form rod-like defects aligned along [110] directions and inhabiting either {111} or {113} crystallographic planes. These systems are known to be electrically and optically active. We present the results of first-principles calculations on the structure and energetics for candidate structures contained within the {113}, {111} and {001} planes and compare the results with experiment.
N/A / Link / Goss , J.P. / 2002

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
The aim of this study is to describe the international forest company SCA's governance and measurements for increased shareholder value. Value-based management (VBM) focuses on the concept of cash flow in contrast to traditional, accounting-based standards. Our analytical framework is a combination of models of VBM-processes and value creation. Using this framework, we map out and analyse the value creation activities whereby we also examine the applied cash value added model (CVA). Finally, we present a construct of the value-based process, which we consider to be not only a governance model but also a new management philosophy at the company.
N/A / Link / Peterson , Christer / 2005

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
The paper investigates the possibilities of using a feedforward time-delay structure for state estimation and smoothing in linear continuous dynamic systems. A fixed-lag finite-memory smoother and a continuous deadbeat observer are shown to be described by a linear combination of delayed measurements of the system inputs and outputs. To facilitate implementation of the observer-based controllers an infinite-memory deadbeat observer is introduced. Design methods are illustrated by numerical examples.
N/A / Link / Medvedev , Alexander / 1994

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Local mode spectroscopy and ab initio modelling are used to investigate two trigonal defects found in carbon-rich Si into which H had been in-diffused. Isotopic shifts with D and 13C are reported along with the effect of uniaxial stress. Ab initio modelling studies suggest that the two defects are two forms of the CH2* complex where one of the two hydrogen atoms lies at an anti-bonding site attached to C or Si, respectively. The two structures are nearly degenerate and possess vibrational modes in good agreement with those observed.
N/A / Link / Hourahine , B. / 2001

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Different process capability indices, which have been suggested for asymmetric tolerances, are discussed and, furthermore, two new classes of appropriate indices are suggested. We study the properties of these new classes of indices. We provide, under the assumption of normality, explicit forms of the distributions of these new classes of the estimated indices. We suggest a decision rule to be used to determine if the process can be considered capable. Using the results regarding the distributions it is possible to calculate the probability that the process is to be considered capable. Based on these results we suggest criteria for choosing an index from the class under investigation.
0-8176-4052-5 / Link / Vännman , Kerstin / 1996

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Robust approximation and worst-case approximate modelling of stable shift-invariant systems from corrupted transfer function estimates are studied in the H[]∞ sense. Connections between the problem formulations of the present work and certain problems of worst-case system identification, notably the Helmicki-Jacobson-Nett problem formulation for identification in H[]∞, are established. Issues of model set selection are addressed using the n-width concept: a concrete result establishes a priori knowledge for which a certain rational model set is optimal in the n-width sense. A notion of robust convergence is defined so that any untuned approximation method satisfying it has a generic well-posedness property for systems in the disk algebra
N/A / Link / Mäkilä , Pertti / 1993

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
First-principles density functional calculations are used to investigate antisite pairs in 4H-SiC. We show that they are likely to be formed in close proximity under ionizing conditions, and they possess a donor level and thermal stability consistent with the series of 40 photoluminescent lines called the alphabet lines. Moreover, the gap vibrational mode of the silicon antisite defect is close to a phonon replica of the b1 line and possesses a weak isotopic shift with 13C in agreement with observation.
N/A / Link / Eberlein , T.A.G. / 2002

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Ab initio cluster and supercell methods are used to investigate the local geometry and optical properties of hydrogen defects in diamond. For an isolated impurity, the bond-centered site is found to be lowest in energy, and to possess both donor and acceptor levels. The neutral defect possesses a single local mode with a very small infrared effective charge, but the effective charge for the negative charge state is much larger. H+ is calculated to be very mobile with a low activation barrier. Hydrogen dimers are stable as H2* defects, which are also found to be almost IR inactive. The complex between B and H is investigated and the activation energy for the reaction B-H→B-+H+ found to be around 1.8 eV in agreement with experiment. We also investigate complexes of hydrogen with phosphorus and nitrogen. The binding energy of H with P is too low to lead to a significant codoping effect. A hydrogen-related vibrational mode of the N-H defect, and its isotopic shifts, are close to the commonly observed 3107-cm-1 line, and we tentatively assign this center to the defect. Hydrogen is strongly bound to dislocations which, together with H2*, may form part of the hydrogen accumulation layer detected in some plasma studies.
N/A / Link / Goss , J.P. / 2002

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Larsson , Roland / 1994

The author describes his experience in developing the course of statistical analysis applications in geochemistry. During this course the students study graphical statistical methods, exploratory data analysis, smoothing and outlier treatment, comparison of two and more samples and regression analysis including residual analysis and influence analysis. The geochemistry part of the course includes monitoring techniques for water quality data and normalising of hydrogeochemical data. The analysis was performed by Data Desk program. The specific feature of the course was that two teachers one from geochemistry and one from statistics were active simultaneously in the classroom during part of the course. They participated in discussions on the interpretation of results. Students were actively involved in the discussions and statistical analysis.
N/A / Link / Vännman , Kerstin / 1997

N/A / Link / Rantatalo , Matti / 2004

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Sundbäck , Ulrik / 1991

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Dislocation related photoluminescence in Si and SiGe is attributed to stable interstitial clusters bound to 60° dislocations. Density functional based total energy calculations in Si give binding energies between 1.5 and 3.6 eV for I3 and I4 clusters with 90° and 30° partials. They possess donor levels around Ev+0.4 eV which are consistent with deep level transient spectroscopic studies on p-Si. It is further suggested that the clusters would act as the obstacles to the movement of dislocations which may have been observed in recent transmission electron microscopy studies.
N/A / Link / Blumenau , A.T. / 2001

First-principles calculations are used to investigate the Shockley partial dislocations in 4H-SiC. We show that both dislocations can sustain the asymmetric and symmetric reconstructions along the dislocation line. The latter reconstructions are always electrically active. In particular, the Si(g) 30 degrees partials can explain the optical activation energy for the dislocation glide at similar to 2.4 eV above the VB, the narrow peak at 2.87 eV and the broadband at similar to 1.8 eV found in photoluminescence spectra. Further, we propose a new model to explain the stability of the symmetric reconstructions and the enhancement of the dislocation velocity in SiC.
N/A / Link / Savini , G. / 2007

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
In this thesis, boundary-crossing collaborative knowledge work aiming for innovation and use of ICT is in focus. The starting point for the research was the proposition that we still have much to learn about boundary- crossing collaboration for innovation and the use of ICT before we can design enabling and supporting ICT and collaborative working environments. Thus, the purpose has been to study and understand collaborative boundary- crossing working groups' activities, as a way to extend the possibilities to design enabling and supporting ICT. To meet this purpose, I wanted to answer the question: How can boundary-crossing collaboration aiming for innovation be enabled in collaborative working environments? Three case studies, with somewhat different focuses, methods and also results, have been performed. Different models as frameworks for both analysis and design have been used in the cases. Main conclusions and contributions of the thesis are given as lessons learned, related to four main areas which were identified from analysis of case data. The first set of conclusions is related to processes and factors enabling knowledge work across boundaries. These are: application of energizing factors, use of boundary objects, addressing roles, norms, values and knowledge assets and, finally, creating dedicated places and spaces. The second set of conclusions is related to ICT issues in boundary- crossing knowledge work. These are: choice of technology, shared virtual platform and models for appreciating technology needs. The third set of conclusions is related to the importance of appreciation of user needs, and methods for this, in the process of designing or developing a collaborative working environment. The fourth set of conclusions comes in the form of reflections on the theoretical models that have been used during the research. There is a need for models and methods that enable design of collaborative environments, as well as models and methods that enable this to be done from a user needs perspective. From the lessons learned, some overarching reflections on implications for collaborative working environments are made. Hence, implications for CWEs as a whole, and some ideas on future research, are presented in the form of a tentative model which can be viewed as a model for designing group processes and relevant technology in a CWE. In this model, designing a CWE and its processes imply more that just designing technology. To conclude, the thesis contributes to the understanding of organisational processes for boundary-crossing collaborative knowledge work through lessons learned, which, in turn, give implications for CWEs.
N/A / Link / Holst , Marita / 2007

We study, when the specification interval is one-sided, two new classes of indices, which are based on the classes of indices for asymmetric tolerances earlier defined by us in Commun. Stat., Theory Methods 26, 2049-2072 (1997). These classes generalize indices for one-sided specification limits earlier suggested in the literature. By varying the parameters of the classes various indices with suitable properties can be obtained. Under the assumption of normality, explicit forms of the distributions of the two new classes of the estimated indices are provided. Numerical investigations are made to explore the behavior of the estimators of the indices for different values of the parameters. Based on the estimators a decision rule that can be used to determine whether the process can be considered capable or not is provided and suitable criteria for choosing an index from the families are suggested.
N/A / Link / Vännman , Kerstin / 1998

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Johansson , Jan / 1979

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Johansson , Örjan / 1997

N/A / Link / Sörensson , Anna / 1996

Maintenance strategies and spare parts consumption is greatly influenced by the reliability characteristics of system or components under consideration. Any maintenance policies or spare parts planning without considering the reliability characteristics are not optimum. Therefore it is important to study and analyse the reliability characteristics before making decision concerning spare parts and maintenance planning. It is known that the operating environmental conditions in which system is to be operated, such as temperature, humidity, dust, load, voltage stress, etc. often have considerable influence on its reliability characteristics. These factors, in fact affect the failure rate of a repairable system and non-repairable components, but are usually ignored in the reliability analysis. Thus operating environment should be considered as an important factor while making decision about maintenance, spare parts planning, product support, and service delivery strategies. In general, new products are often usedunder conditions that are not anticipated. It is common to modify predicted life length and reliability characteristics of product by considering the environmental and other factors. The purpose is to incorporate the effect of the environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, dust, voltage stress, etc in reliability analysis.
981-238-871-0 / Link / Ghodrati , Behzad / 2004