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Högskolan Kristianstad Övrigt
We assessed the feasibility and psychometric properties of two commonly used health status questionnaires in Parkinson's disease (PD): the generic Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and the disease-specific 39-item Parkinson's disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), from a cross-sectional postal survey of PD patients (N = 81), using traditional and Rasch measurement methodologies. Overall response rate was 88%. Both questionnaires were found feasible, although the NHP performed less well. The PDQ-39 had fewer floor effects and was better able to separate respondents into distinct groups than the NHP, whereas the latter exhibited less ambiguous dimensionality and better targeting of respondents with non-extreme scores. Reliability and validity indices were similar, and potential differential item functioning by age and gender groups was found for both questionnaires. PDQ-39 response alternatives indicated ambiguity. With few exceptions, questionnaire scales were unable to meet recommended standards fully. While preliminary, this study illustrates the need for thorough evaluation of outcome measures and has implications beyond the questionnaires used here. Although promising, both questionnaires warrant further developmental work and stronger support of measurement validity before they could be considered fully suitable for valid use in PD, in particular in earlier stages of the disease.
N/A / Link / Hagell , Peter / 2003

This poster reports from the initial steps of formulating a prescriptive design theory to support the development of scholastic/formal work-integrated e-learning systems. For this purpose a framework for authentic learning, developed andevaluated in a school setting and the eight components of design theories by Gregor and Jones has been used to guide two elearning activities in a work setting. Adapting authentic learning to a formal work-integrated e-learning context calls for a simplification of the framework where some elements of authentic learning become peripheral whereas others become more central. Copyright 2009 ACM.
N/A / Link / Östlund , Christian / 2009

Högskolan Väst Omvårdnad
978-0-8020-9109-3 / Link / Hassler , Sven / 2008

Fatigue has been shown to be a consistent and common problem in Parkinson's disease (PD) in multiple countries and cultures. It is one of the most disabling of all symptoms, including motor dysfunction, and appears early, often predating the onset of motor symptoms. Several studies of the epidemiology of fatigue have been published, often using different scales, but few on treatment. The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to assess available clinical rating scales, critique their psychometric properties, summarize their clinical properties, and evaluate the evidence in support of their use in clinical studies in PD. Six clinical researchers reviewed all studies published in peer reviewed journals of fatigue in PD, evaluated the scales' previous use, performance parameters, and quality of validation data, if available. Scales were rated according to criteria provided by the MDS. A scale was "recommended" if it has been used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, has been used in PD and psychometric studies have established that it is a valid, reliable and sensitive to change in people with PD. Requiring a scale to have demonstrated sensitivity to change in PD specifically rather than in other areas in order to attain a rating of "recommended" differs from the use of this term in previous MDS task force scale reviews. "Suggested" scales failed to meet all the criteria of a "recommended" scale, usually the criterion of sensitivity to change in a study of PD. Scales were "listed" if they had been used in PD studies but had little or no psychometric data to assess. Some scales could be used both to screen for fatigue as well as to assess fatigue severity, but some were only used to assess severity. The Fatigue Severity Scale was "recommended" for both screening and severity rating. The Fatigue Assessment Inventory, an expanded version of the Fatigue severity Scale, is "suggested" for both screening and severity. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue was "recommended" for screening and "suggested" for severity. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory was "suggested" for screening and "recommended" for severity. The Parkinson Fatigue Scale was "recommended" for screening and "suggested" for severity rating. The Fatigue Severity Inventory was "listed" for both screening and severity. The Fatigue Impact Scale for Daily Use, an adaptation of the Fatigue Impact Scale was "listed" for screening and "suggested" for severity. Visual Analogue and Global Impression Scales are both "listed" for screening and severity. The committee concluded that current scales are adequate for fatigue studies in PD but that studies on sensitivity and specificity of the scales are still needed.
N/A / Link / Friedman , Joseph H. / 2010

Psychometric theory requires unidimensionality (i.e., scale items should represent a common latent variable). One advocated approach to test unidimensionality within the Rasch model is to identify two item sets from a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of residuals, estimate separate person measures based on the two item sets, compare the two estimates on a person-by-person basis using t-tests and determine the number of cases that differ significantly at the 0.05-level; if ≤5% of tests are significant, or the lower bound of a binomial 95% confidence interval (CI) of the observed proportion overlaps 5%, then it is suggested that strict unidimensionality can be inferred; otherwise the scale is multidimensional. Given its proposed significance and potential implications, this procedure needs detailed scrutiny. This paper explores the impact of sample size and method of estimating the 95% binomial CI upon conclusions according to recommended conventions. Normal approximation, “exact”, Wilson, Agresti-Coull, and Jeffreys binomial CIs were calculated for observed proportions of 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 and sample sizes from n= 100 to n= 2500. Lower 95%CI boundaries were inspected regarding coverage of the 5% threshold. Results showed that all binomial 95% CIs included as well as excluded 5% as an effect of sample size for all three investigated proportions, except for the Wilson, Agresti-Coull, and JeffreysCIs, which did not include 5% for any sample size with a 10% observed proportion. The normal approximation CI was most sensitive to sample size. These data illustrate that the PCA/t-test protocol should be used and interpreted as any hypothesis testing procedure and is dependent on sample size as well as binomial CI estimation procedure. The PCA/t-test protocol should not be viewed as a “definite” test of unidimensionality and does not replace an integrated quantitative/qualitative interpretation based on an explicit variable definition in view of the perspective, context and purpose of measurement.
N/A / Link / Hagell , Peter / 2014

BACKGROUND: We investigated clinical and subgingival microbiologic changes during pregnancy in 20 consecutive pregnant women > or =18 years not receiving dental care.METHODS: Bacterial samples from weeks 12, 28, and 36 of pregnancy and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum were processed for 37 species by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Clinical periodontal data were collected at week 12 and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum, and bleeding on probing (BOP) was recorded at sites sampled at the four time points.RESULTS: The mean BOP at week 12 and postpartum was 40.1% +/- 18.2% and 27.4% +/- 12.5%, respectively. The corresponding mean BOP at microbiologic test sites was 15% (week 12) and 21% (postpartum; not statistically significant). Total bacterial counts decreased between week 12 and postpartum (P <0.01). Increased bacterial counts over time were found for Neisseria mucosa (P <0.001). Lower counts (P <0.001) were found for Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eubacterium saburreum, Fusobacterium nucleatum naviforme, Fusobacterium nucleatum polymorphum, Leptotrichia buccalis, Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros), Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Selenomonas noxia, and Veillonella parvula. No changes occurred between weeks 12 and 28 of pregnancy. Counts of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), and Treponema denticola did not change. Counts of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia at week 12 were associated with gingivitis (P <0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Subgingival levels of bacteria associated with periodontitis did not change. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia counts were associated with BOP at week 12. A decrease was found in 17 of 37 species from week 12 to postpartum. Only counts of N. mucosa increased.
N/A / Link / Adriaens , Laurence M / 2009

Background: The carer impact of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD) is vast. Attempts to measure carer QoL in neurodegenerative disorders include the three-dimensional (Practical aspects of Caregiving, PC; Satisfaction with Life, SL; Feelings about Living with Huntington's disease, FL) Huntington's Disease Quality of Life Battery for Carers (HDQoL-C) and the unidimensional Alzheimer's Carer's Quality of Life Inventory (ACQLI). However, evidence regarding their psychometric properties is sparse. Objectives: To test and compare the psychometric properties of the HDQoL-C, its short-form, and the ACQLI among HD carers. Methods: Data from 61 HD carers (36 women; mean age, 55) were analysed using traditional psychometric methods. Results: Data completeness was good (>95% computable scale scores) but compromised for the PC and total HDQoL-C scales (≤80% computable scale scores). Scaling assumptions were supported for the SL and ACQLI scales (corrected item-total correlations ≥0.38; scaling success rates, 94–100%) but not for the PC, FL or total HDQoL-C scales (corrected item-total correlations ≥0.08; scaling success rates, 39–62%). Floor/ceiling effects were ≤9.8%. Reliabilities were ≥0.84, except for the PC scale (0.62). Conclusions: The HDQoL-C failed to exhibit suitability as a HD carer outcome measure, as two of its three scales did not meet basic psychometric criteria. The third scale (SL) did not outperform the ACQLI. This suggests that carer impact is not disease specific across neurodegenerative disorders.
N/A / Link / Hagell , Peter / 2013

Risk factors for malnutrition were frequent mamong elderly persons and calls for preventive actions through information about how to eat healthy. This information can be provided during preventive home visits.
N/A / Link / Westergren , Albert / 2011

Högskolan Kristianstad Näringslära
N/A / Link / Lindskov , Susanne / 2010

The aim was to develop and evaluate a preparatory information booklet for adult patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The booklet was developed based on pertinent literature and clinical experience. After ethical approval, it was then evaluated qualitatively in 10 people who had received the booklet before their first ever MRI scan. All patients expressed the need for written preparatory information and seven had experienced prescan anxiety and discomfort. Participants found the booklet informative and easily understood, and expressed appreciation related to procedural, behavioral, and sensory information. A few minor misunderstandings were revealed. The impressions by previously MRI-naive participants in this study indicate that the information booklet was successful in providing procedural, behavioral, and sensory information. Minor booklet modifications should provide means to circumvent current misunderstandings. The process used to develop and evaluate the information booklet for this study illustrates an easily implemented strategy to meet patients' needs for preparatory information in clinical practice.
N/A / Link / Bolejko , Anetta / 2008

Högskolan Kristianstad Övrigt
Syftet med studien var att undersöka förekomsten av sömnsvårigheter bland personer på sjukhus, särskilt boende samt inom hemsjukvård/kvalificerad vård i hemmet (KVH), samt att jämföra sömnen hemma och på sjukhus för de personer som befann sig på sjukhus. Vidare var syftet att högskolestudenter inom sjuksköterskeprogrammet skulle få träning i kritiskt tänkande, reflektion och  att  introducera  evidensbaserade  verktyg/instrument  för  att  underlätta  beslut  rörande patientsäkerhet.Metod:  Datainsamlingen  utfördes  av  sjuksköterskestudenter  i  kurs  6  och  16  under  deras verksamhetsförlagda utbildning på sjukhus, särskilt boende, hemsjukvård och KVH, 2011. Även kliniska adjunkter/kliniska lärare och personal i verksamheterna medverkade till genomförandet. Studenterna fick genom datainsamlingen träning i att ge information till personal och patient/ vårdtagare, sammanställa resultat från enheten/avdelningen, samt att återrapportera och reflektera över resultaten. Screening avseende störd nattsömn (insomni) och dagsömnighet gjordes baserat på bedömninsinstrumenten The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS), Scales for Outcomes in PArkinson’s disease – Sleep (SCOPA-Sleep), Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) och Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Varje sjuksköterskestudent tillfrågade cirka fyra patienter/vårdtagare om att medverka i studien.Resultat: De på sjukhus och inom hemsjukvård/KVH sover i snitt färre timmar per natt jämfört med de på särskilt boende. Det vanligaste sömnproblemet för alla tre grupper var att vakna under natten och insomni var vanligare på sjukhus och inom hemsjukvård/KVH än på särskilt boende. Det vanligaste problemet under dag- och kvällstid för de på sjukhus och inom hemsjukvård/KVH var att somna under tiden när man tittat på TV eller läst. För de på särskilt boende var det vanligaste problemet att plötsligt somna under dag- eller kvällstid. Vid jämförelse av sömntimmar per natt hemma och på sjukhus bland de deltagare som befann sig på sjukhus skiljde sig sömntimmarna inte markant åt. En något större andel bedömde sin sömnkvalitet som ganska dålig eller mycket dålig under sjukhusvistelsen i jämförelse med sömnkvaliteten hemma. Även insomni var något vanligare att uppleva på sjukhus än hemma. Merparten av deltagarna använde ungefär lika mycket eller mer sömntabletter på sjukhuset än hemma. Majoriteten av medverkande studenter ansåg sig ha fått en bättre vetenskaplig förståelse efter genomförd studie, med en särskilt stor andel hos kurs 16 studenterna. En något större andel avkurs 6 studenterna ansåg sig ha ökat sina kunskaper om sömnvanor/sömnproblem i jämförelsemed kurs 16 studenterna. Åtgärder för att underlätta sömnen hos patienter/vårdtagare som föreslogs utav studenterna fokuserade på personalens bemötande, dokumentation och utvärdering samt miljö och hjälpmedel. Majoriteten av studenterna var positiva till genomförandet av studien, samt upplevde att även patienter och vårdtagare förhöll sig positiva till studien. Det var många som däremot kritiserade att frågorna i frågeformuläret var snarlika och att det saknas frågor om vad eventuella sömnsvårigheter berodde på.Konklusion: Sjukhusvistelse var delvis associerad med negativ påverkan på sömnen. Generellt rapporterar äldre personer på särskilt boende att de sover ganska bra. Att vara delaktiga i FUSS-projekt bidrar till en bättre vetenskaplig förståelse hos flertalet sjuksköterskestudenter.
N/A / Link / Westergren , Albert / 2012

Objective To analyze the criterion-related validity and user-friendliness of the Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form – Version II (MEONF – II) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in relation to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). In addition, the effect of substituting body mass index (BMI) with calf circumference (CC) was explored for the MEONF-II. Methods The study included 100 patients who were assessed for nutritional status with the MNA (full version), considered here to be the gold standard, and screened with the MUST and the MEONF-II. The MEONF-II includes assessments of involuntary weight loss, BMI (or calf circumference), eating difficulties, and presence of clinical signs of undernutrition. Results The MEONF-II sensitivity (0.73) and specificity (0.88) were acceptable. Sensitivity and specificity for the MUST were 0.57 and 0.93, respectively. Replacing the BMI with CC in the MEONF-II gave similar results (sensitivity 0.68, specificity 0.90). Assessors considered MEONF-II instructions and items to be relevant, easy to understand and complete (100%), and the questions to be relevant (98%). MEONF-II and MUST took 8.8 and 4.7 minutes to complete, respectively, and both were considered relevant and easy to finish. In addition, MEONF-II was thought to reveal problems that allows for nursing interventions. Conclusions The MEONF-II is an easy to use, relatively quick, and sensitive screening tool to assess risk of undernutrition among hospital inpatients, which allows for substituting BMI with CC in situations where measures of patient height and weight cannot be easily obtained. High sensitivity is of primary concern in nutritional screening and the MEONF-II outperforms the MUST in this regard.
N/A / Link / Vallén , Christina / 2011

Högskolan Kristianstad Övrigt
The purpose of this paper is to examine franchise relationships by using an interaction approach which involves several exchanges or actor bonds between a franchisor and franchisee. The study is based on a web survey directed towards franchisees in Sweden. A total of 191 survey responses were obtained from a wide range of industries, representing a 16.2% response rate. A Pearson Correlation test was performed for the hypotheses. Results demonstrate a significant correlation on the impact which adaptations have on commitment in franchise relationships. Furthermore, information exchange is positively related to enhanced franchise outlet performance. The paper contributes to filling the gap within franchise relationship literature by applying an interaction approach in contrast to prior economic theories in this field of study.
N/A / Link / Ekelund , Christer / 2014

N/A / Link / Hansen Orwehag , Monica / 2009

Högskolan Kristianstad Övrigt
Background: Unintentional weight loss and undernutrition have been found common in  Parkinson’s disease but its relation to other disease aspects is unclear.Objectives: To explore nutritional status in relation to disease duration in Parkinson’s disease, as well as associations between nutritional status and motor and autonomic features.Design: Cross-sectional.Setting: South-Swedish outpatient Parkinson-clinic.Participants: Home-dwelling people with Parkinson’s disease (n=71), without significant cognitive impairment (mean age, 67.3 years; 56% men; mean disease duration, 6.3 years).Measurements: Parkinsonian motor symptoms, mobility, activity level, disability, dyskinesias, dysautonomia, under- and malnutrition risk screening (using MEONF II and MUST for undernutrition and SCREEN II for malnutrition) and anthropometric measures (BMI, handgrip strength, triceps skin-fold, mid-arm circumference and mid-upper arm muscle circumference) were recorded. The sample was divided into those with longer (n=34) and shorter disease duration (n=37) according to the median (5 years).Results: Longer disease duration was associated with more, disability, dyskinesias and dysautonomia than shorter duration (P ≤0.04). Mean (SD) body weight and BMI were 80.3 (16.3) kg and 28.1 (4.8) kg/m 2, respectively, and did not differ between duration groups (body weight, 80.9 vs. 79.6 kg; BMI, 28.0 vs. 28.3 kg/m 2; P≥0.738). There were no differences in other anthropometric measures between duration groups (P ≥0.300). BMI identified 4% and 62% as under- and overweight, respectively, and 4% exhibited  undernutrition risk, whereas 87% were at risk for malnutrition. Nutritional and motor/dysautonomic variables showed relatively weak correlations (r s, ≤ 0.33), but people with orthostatic hypotension had lower BMI (26.7 vs 29.2 kg/m 2; P=0.026) and lower handgrip strength (33.2 vs 41.6 kg; P=0.025) than those without orthostatic hypotension.Conclusion: Motor and autonomic features showed expected relationships with disease duration. In contrast to these observations, and to most previous reports on nutrition in PD, frequencies of underweight and undernutrition were low. However, malnutrition risk was high, emphasizing the need for regular clinical monitoring of nutritional status. The reasons for the preserved nutritional status have to be explored prospectively.
N/A / Link / Lindskov , Susanne / 2014

This paper discusses recent advances that have been made in the field of psychometrics, specifically, the application of Rasch analysis to the instrument development process. It emphasizes the importance of assessing the fundamental scaling properties of an instrument prior to consideration of traditional psychometric indicators. The paper introduces Rasch analysis and shows how it has been applied in the development of needs-based measures in order to ensure that they provide unidimensional measurement. By ensuring that scales are based on the same measurement model and that they fit the Rasch model it is possible for QoL scores to be compared across diseases by means of cocalibration and item banking.
N/A / Link / Tennant , Alan / 2004

Karlstads universitet Övrigt
Om hotbildernas förskjutning i relation till datorteknolpogins utveckling.
N/A / Link / Ingvarsson , Jonas / 2010

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The newly developed Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form - Version II (MEONF-II) has shown promising sensitivity and specificity in relation to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). However, the suggested MEONF-II cut-off scores for deciding low/moderate and high risk for undernutrition (UN) (>2 and >4, respectively) have not been decided based on statistical criteria but on clinical reasoning. The objective of this study was to identify the optimal cut-off scores for the MEONF-II in relation to the well-established MNA based on statistical criteria.DESIGN:Cross-sectional study.METHODS:The study included 187 patients (mean age, 77.5 years) assessed for nutritional status with the MNA (full version), and screened with the MEONF-II. The MEONF-II includes assessments of involuntary weight loss, Body Mass Index (BMI) (or calf circumference), eating difficulties, and presence of clinical signs ofUN. MEONF-II data were analysed by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC); optimal cut-offs were identified by the Youden index (J=sensitivity+specificity-1).RESULTS:According to the MEONF-II, 41% were at moderate or high UN risk and according to the MNA, 50% were at risk or already undernourished. The suggested cut-off scores were supported by the Youden indices. The lower cut-off for MEONF-II, used to identify any level of risk for UN (>2; J=0.52) gave an overall accuracy of 76% and the AUC was 80%. The higher cut-off for identifying those with high risk for UN (>4; J=0.33) had an accuracy of 63% and the AUC was 70%.CONCLUSIONS:The suggested MEONF-II cut-off scores were statistically supported. This improves the confidence of its clinical use.
N/A / Link / Westergren , Albert / 2011

The increased global connectivity and increased mobility of both humans and capital have created competition between cities and regions when it comes to attracting resources in order to achieve their developmental goals and place branding is today an important research field. The residents’ view of the place where they live is important for the local authority since it can influence future migration but also affect investment attraction and business migration. A measurement of the place brand satisfaction from a resident’s point of view is therefore an essential performance indicator for places (Insch & Florek, 2008).In this study it is argued that the product place consists of both service such as schools and libraries as well as more tangible features such as roads and parks and thus offers a good setting for applying a service management perspective. The core of the product place can be regarded as services and as a consequence it is very important that the encounters with the place are characterized by a high service quality. Service management has been discussed together with place branding before (Warnaby, 2009; Ashworh & Kavaratzis, 2010) but to our knowledge without presenting a framework for analysis and the empirical material is very limited. This paper applies a service management perspective in evaluating the resident place satisfaction by using a survey and thus offers new insights to the field.
N/A / Link / Källström , Lisa / 2013

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess gingival fluid (GCF) cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, subgingival bacteria, and clinical periodontal conditions during a normal pregnancy to postpartum.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subgingival bacterial samples were analyzed with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. GCF samples were assessed with real-time PCR including five proinflammatory cytokines and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor.RESULTS: Nineteen pregnant women with a mean age of 32 years (S.D. ± 4 years, range 26-42) participated in the study. Full-mouth bleeding scores (BOP) decreased from an average of 41.2% (S.D. ± 18.6%) at the 12th week of pregnancy to 26.6% (S.D. ± 14.4%) at the 4-6 weeks postpartum (p < 0.001). Between week 12 and 4-6 weeks postpartum, the mean probing pocket depth changed from 2.4 mm (S.D. ± 0.4) to 2.3 mm (S.D. ± 0.3) (p = 0.34). Higher counts of Eubacterium saburreum, Parvimonas micra, Selenomonas noxia, and Staphylococcus aureus were found at week 12 of pregnancy than at the 4-6 weeks postpartum examinations (p < 0.001). During and after pregnancy, statistically significant correlations between BOP scores and bacterial counts were observed. BOP scores and GCF levels of selected cytokines were not related to each other and no differences in GCF levels of the cytokines were observed between samples from the 12th week of pregnancy to 4-6 weeks postpartum. Decreasing postpartum counts of Porphyromonas endodontalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were associated with decreasing levels of Il-8 and Il-1β.CONCLUSIONS: BOP decreased after pregnancy without any active periodontal therapy. Associations between bacterial counts and cytokine levels varied greatly in pregnant women with gingivitis and a normal pregnancy outcome. Postpartum associations between GCF cytokines and bacterial counts were more consistent.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Combined assessments of gingival fluid cytokines and subgingival bacteria may provide important information on host response.
N/A / Link / Bieri , Regina Alessandri / 2013

Högskolan Kristianstad Övrigt
This paper has its origin in the new evaluation system that was introduced by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education (HSV) (from 2013 The Swedish Higher Education Authority) in 2011. In this new evaluation system the focus is on the results (in the form of bachelor and master theses) compared to the earlier systems that focused on processes, number of professors, published articles etc. The result of the evaluation of the subject of business administration, that was carried out in 2011, were to a certain extent surprising. At the bachelor level only three universities (Stockholm School of Economics, Jönköping International Business School and Kristianstad University) received the highest grade “very high quality”. The central question of this paper is how it was possible for a small university like Kristianstad University (HKR) to succeed in this new way of measuring quality in education. Was it pure luck or is it possible to explain this excellent result? The first part of the paper is a discussion that provides possible explanations like emphasis on quality and generic skills as well as the advantages of a small university with less distance between lecturers and students, and also fewer students compared to the big universities. In the second part of the paper we focus on the concept of “refinement”. The students that are admitted to the programme at HKR have considerably lower grades that the students admitted to the big universities. A survey of the bachelor theses that were sent to the evaluation from HKR showed some interesting results. The male students who had the lowest grades when admitted to the programme produced the best bachelor theses according to the evaluation.
N/A / Link / Genell , Kristina / 2013

Objectives: Sleep has been shown to be involved both in emotion regulation and in the active processing of information. We combined these two concepts and tested if sleep affected the generalization of fear learning.Methods: In a fear conditioning paradigm, participants were shown images of a small and a big circle where one of them was paired with an aversive sound, making it the CS+. Fear was measured with skin conductance responses. Participants were then randomly divided into a sleep or a wake group. The sleep group took a 2 h nap while the wake group rested for 2 h. Participants were then exposed to the two circles seen before, combined with 8 novel circles that gradually varied in size from the small one to the big one. We looked at how many circle sizes away from the CS+ that participants still exhibited a fear response, and if this differed between the sleep and the wake group.Results: We found no effect of sleep on the slope of the generalization across the different circles. There was a main effect of circle size, F(1,25) = 10.42, P = 0.01, but no main effect of sleep/wake, F (1,25) = 0.40, P = 0.54, and no interaction between sleep/wake X circle size, F(1,25) = 0.62, P = 0.44.Conclusions: The fear conditioning manipulation worked, with a gradual increase of fear depending on the stimuli’s similarity to the CS+. However, there was no effect of sleep or wake, which could possibly be explained by that just a 2 h nap not being a sufficient sleep manipulation to detect any differences.
N/A / Link / Davidsson , P. / 2014

Högskolan Kristianstad Övrigt
Due to the international nature of many clinical studies and trials it is often necessary to produce several language versions of specific measures. While it is generally acknowledged that it is necessary to produce versions that are conceptually equivalent, the best method of achieving this is more controversial. It is commonly stated that there is a gold-standard method, which involves forward and backward translation. However, no evidence has been presented to support this view. This paper argues that the "gold-standard" method is difficult to support and describes an alternative method involving dual translation panels that has been used in the production of all adaptations of needs-based quality of life instruments.
N/A / Link / Swaine-Verdier , Angelo / 2004

In several studies, it has been found that repeated exposure to a novel food increases children’s acceptance of the exposure food. The present study, investigated how repeated exposure influences the acceptance of two Nordic berry juices, and whether the development depends on initial liking of the product, in 9–11 year-old children. The study had 317 participants. Two groups of children were exposed to either sea-buckthorn (n = 92) or aronia (n = 105) juice eight times, and performed two follow-up sessions 3 and 6 months after the 8th exposure. A third group (n = 120) served as controls. During pre and post-test sessions all participating children evaluated acceptance of both juices.Intake of sea-buckthorn juice increased significantly over the eight exposures (55.1 ± 7.3 till 108.8 ± 12.3) and remained high after 6 months (131.1 ± 13.2). Intake of aronia juice was only increased at follow-up sessions. Liking did not develop significantly for any of the juices across exposures. When children were grouped by their initial liking increased intake across exposures was observed regardless of initial liking of sea-buckthorn. Liking developed similarly for both juices. A significant increase was found for the ‘initial dislikers’ only. This study demonstrates how exposure effects are influenced by initial liking; it appears that changes in familiarity explain the changes seen for sea-buckthorn among ‘dislikers’. ‘Initial dislikers’ had the most benefit from repeated exposures, but did not reach ‘initial likers’ across eight exposures; more exposures in the group of ‘initial dislikers’ had possibly led to even higher liking and intake. The increased intake observed for ‘neutral likers’ and ‘initial likers’ of sea-buckthorn was not explained by increased familiarity or increased liking.
N/A / Link / Hartvig , Ditte L. / 2015

Högskolan Väst Arbetsmarknadsforskning
N/A / Link / Molin , Martin / 2008

This paper reports on a study where rubrics have been used to convey assessment expectations to students (n = 176) in three different assessment situations in professional education. These situations are: (1) the development of a survey instrument, which was part of a course in statistics and epidemiology; (2) an inspection of a house, which was part of a course about the functions of buildings for real estate brokers and (3) a workshop in communication with patients, which was part of a course in the evaluation of diagnostic procedures and treatments of oral infections in dental education. In all situations, students’ perceptions and uses of the rubrics were investigated. Findings suggest that it is indeed possible to convey expectations to students through the use of rubrics, in the sense that students not only appreciate the efforts to make assessment criteria transparent, but may also use the criteria in order to support and self-assess their performance. Important features of the rubrics, which were found to facilitate students’ understanding and use of the criteria in these situations, are presented and discussed.
N/A / Link / Jönsson , Anders / 2014