# Sök uppsatser och vetenskapliga publikationer

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### Design for wellbeing

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
There is a growing need for engineering designers to engage in creative activities that result in innovative products and technologies for the benefit of society. However, from an engineering perspective, issues of ‘life quality’ are currently heavily under-prioritized, particularly with regard to people with disabilities. This paper argues that both needs and solutions are now part of the designer’s responsibility, and that it is crucial to make a qualitative assessment of both the potential market impact and the ‘quality of life’ improvements afforded by innovations. Design for Wellbeing offers a perspective on life quality that goes beyond the traditional scope of assistive technology in that it aims to help people make a transformation from an actual state of being to a desired state of being – regardless of ability level.
N/A / Link / Leifer , Larry / 2005

### A service perspective on product development

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Functional products are understood as a combination of hardware, software and services. Based on interviews with employees in manufacturing firms the notion of functional product development is described. The purpose has been to explore the differences between a service perspective and a core product perspective and highlight changes in the management of product development processes that are motivated by the notion of functional products. Exploring the differences between the two perspectives has identified a gap of how the product is viewed at the business level and technical development levels. The integration of services into the hardware development process in the form of a customised product or product life cycle has been highlighted. Internal and external communication about needs has been identified as useful.
N/A / Link / Ericson , Åsa / 2005

### Sjung, sjung för livet!

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Den här uppsatsen handlar om körsång som pedagogisk och social verksamhet. Det övergripande syftet var att beskriva och försöka förstå relationen mellan körsång och livskvalitet utifrån körsångarnas perspektiv. Arbetet organiserades i två delstudier, en enkätundersökning och en intervjustudie. Till enkätundersökningen valdes 18 amatörkörer, vilka hade olika syften med sin verksamhet och tillhörde olika organisationer. De utvalda körerna kom från norra Sverige och bestod av studerande, arbetsaktiva (både friska och sjukskrivna) deltagare samt pensionärer. Sammanlagt 346 körsångare i åldrarna mellan 20 och 89 år deltog. Resultatet från enkätstudien indikerade att människor som sjöng på arbetstid brukade må sämre före körrepetitionerna jämfört med dem som övade på fritiden. De flesta deltagare mådde betydligt bättre när körrepetitionen var avslutad. I intervjustudien undersöktes hur körsång kunde erbjuda tillfällen till meningsskapande och användas i rehabiliteringsarbete. Med utgångspunkt i enkätstudien valdes en så kallad rehabiliteringskör till intervjustudien. Kören bestod av 12 kvinnliga sångare. Den viktigaste grunden till urvalet var deltagarnas medicinska diagnoser samt deras enkätsvar om hur de upplevde körsång och bedömde sin hälsa. Intervjuerna var halvstrukturerade med följande frågeområden: körsång, hälsa, livskvalitet, välbefinnande, fritidsaktiviteter och familjesituation. Kvalitativ innehållsanalys valdes för databearbetning. Resultatet från intervjustudien utmynnade i fyra huvudkategorier: På väg till kören, Möte i kören, Delaktighet i musiken och Spår av kören i vardagen. De båda studiernas resultat besvarade frågorna ur musikpedagogiskt perspektiv där körsång sågs som en social och rehabiliterande verksamhet. Körsång har visat sig kunna bidra till deltagarnas välbefinnande, hälsa och livskvalitet på olika sätt.
N/A / Link / Lindström , Dorota / 2006

### Simulation of tack welding procedures in butt joint welding of plates

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
The influence of tack welding procedure on change in root opening was investigated. This change during the first part of welding depends on the order in which the tack welds are made. It is also affected by the starting position of the welding arc. These effects were studied in seven theoretical analyses - three cases where the tack welding procedures differed and four cases where the temperature fields at the beginning of the butt joint welding differed. The material investigated was a fine-grain steel with a yield stress of 360 MPa (52,200 psi) at room temperature. The filler material was ESAB 1. 2/12. 51 (AWS ER70S-6).
N/A / Link / Jonsson , Mikael / 1985

### Applications of whole field interferometry in mechanics and acoustics

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
A description is given of fringe formation in holographic interferometry, in electronic speckle pattern interferometry, in electro-optic or TV holography and for a newly developed system for pulsed TV-holography. A numerical example, which simulates the equations describing the different techniques, is included. A strain measuring system using defocused digital speckle photography is described. Experiments showing mode shapes of musical instruments, transient bending wave propagation in beams and plates as well as sound pressure fields in air are included
N/A / Link / Molin , Nils-Erik / 1999

### Uppfattningar om specialpedagogiska insatser

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Syftet med studien har varit att studera elever och speciallärares uppfattningars om de riktade åtgärderna inom den specialpedagogiska verksamheten. Konkret så har det handlat om att utröna det som elever och speciallärare uppfattar som meningsskapande i den specialpedagogiska verksamheten med avseende på självbild, självvärdering och lärande. Studien har genomförts i tre norrbottniska kommuner i Sverige med tre speciallärare och sex elever. Studien har sin teoretiska grund till övervägande delen i ett socialt interaktionistiskt perspektiv där den symboliska interaktionismen (Mead, 1967,1976; Cooley, 2003), stämplingsteorin (Leissner, 1975) och den sociala konstruktionismen (Berger & Luckmann, 1979; Gergen & Gergen, 1991; Gergen, 1991, 1994) har varit teoretiska utgångspunkter. Vad dessa har gemensamt är att de till övervägande delen betraktar människans självbild som en produkt av den sociala interaktionen. Metodmässigt så har studien influerats av den kvalitativa forskningstraditionen där den kvalitativa forskningsintervjun har varit datainsamlingsmetod. Tolkningsprocessen har inspirerats av den hermeneutiska metoden. Resultatet kan tyda på att den specialpedagogiska åtgärdsstrukturen påverkar elevernas självbild och självvärdering. Det som resultatet även kan tyda på är att den integrerade formen av specialpedagogik som studien har belyst, av dessa elever och speciallärare förknippas med skolrelaterad problematik som överförs till eleven via den sociala interaktionen. När det då gäller lärandeaspekten så uppfattar jag att eleverna till övervägande delen är positiva till den hjälp de får. Studien kan tyda på att det kan ske en överföring från speciallärarnas individuella synsätt, i detta fall en antydd patologisk syn på läs- och skrivproblem, till eleverna med den följden att de kan erhålla en uppfattning att de generellt har problem med sitt lärande. Den negativa påverkan av den specialpedagogiska verksamheten som denna elevgrupp uttrycker kan mildras genom att kopplingen till skolmisslyckanden tonas ner. Samtatt även det antydda patologiska perspektivet på läs- och skrivsvårigheter, som i förlängningen av eleven kan uppfattas som lärandeproblematik generellt, tonas ner. För att kunna förekomma det negativa utpekandet som den specialpedagogiska verksamheten i denna studie verkar medföra, och som i förlängningen kan leda till stämpling och stigmatisering, är det enligt min mening önskvärt att klassystemet som organisatorisk form i skolan tas under omprövning. Detta till förmån för ett organisatoriskt system som innebär att inte vissa avvikelser blir betraktade som negativa och dåliga. Ett förslag kan vara att generellt införa något mindre studiegrupper som är flexibla över tid och utifrån studieområde, samt att den kulturellt betingade synen på normalitet och avvikelse tas under beaktande.
N/A / Link / Groth , Dennis / 2007

### District nursing - sharing an understanding by being present

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
BACKGROUND: In the homecare setting, district nurses assume a heavy responsibility and are involved in a variety of care activities. They view themselves as having a central role in care at home that centres on the development of a relationship with those who are ill and their families. AIM: The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of district nurses experiences of encounters with people with serious chronic illness and their close relatives in their homes. A purposive sample of 10 district nurses (female) was interviewed using a narrative approach. METHOD: To achieve the aim, a phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur was used to interpret the interview text. RESULTS: This study proposes that district nurses' experiences of encounters with people with serious chronic illness and their close relatives in their homes can be understood as district nurses being welcomed into the ill people's privacy, to share their intimacy and their understanding of being ill. This close relationship enables them to alleviate and to console the suffering and loneliness caused by illness. This is expressed in the three themes: being in a close relationship, sharing an understanding and weaving a web of protection. CONCLUSION: It seems that by being entirely present, in a close relationship, district nurses share the experiences of illness and through interpretation of the whole persons' expressions; they share an understanding of this illness experience. In this close relationship, at the home of the ill people and their close relatives, district nurses are available to alleviate people's suffering and loneliness caused by illness. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study reveals the need to be entirely present in encounters between the district nurses and people with serious chronic illness and their close relatives. This relation makes it possible to establish a shared understanding of the illness experience. Being aware of the importance of this shared understanding within a relationship, will increase the health care personnel's possibility to alleviate and console those suffering of illness. This proposed interpretation could be useful for reflection of care interventions, in education and supervision of district nurses.
N/A / Link / Öhman , Marja / 2004

### Grassed swales for stormwater pollution control during rain and snowmelt

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
The retention of suspended solids, particles and heavy metals in different grassed swales during rain events and snowmelt is discussed. The experimental results derived from investigations performed in existing grassed swales in the Luleae. region, Northern Sweden. During high pollutant loading rates, grassed swales retain significant amounts of pollutants, mainly due to sedimentation of particulate matter. Low to moderate removal efficiencies could be expected for heavy metals, especially metals in solution (i.e. the dissolved phase). When grassed swales receive urban runoff with low pollutant concentrations, they may release rather than retain pollutants. Swales are important snow deposit areas in the city and particle bound pollutants do to a large extent remain in the swale after snowmelt. However, dissolved pollutants (i.e. dissolved heavy metals) are likely to escape the swale with the melt water. Grassed swales may be regarded as facilities that even out the peaks in pollutant loads without being capable of producing consistent high removal rates. This suggests that swales should be considered as primary treatment devices. Possible design parameters for grassed swales are mean hydraulic detention time, surface loading rate or specific swale area.
N/A / Link / Bäckström , Magnus / 2003

### Getting physical

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Bergström , Mattias / 2005

### Press brakes

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Sundbäck , Ulrik / 1996

### Evaluation of annoyance response to engine sounds using different rating methods

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
1-87308-291-6 / Link / Kahn , M.S. / 1996

### How filler properties, filler fraction, sample thickness and light source affect light attenuation in particulate filled resin composites

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
The way by which variables such as filler type, filler surface treatment and light source affect light attenuation in particulate filled resin composites was presented. Mixture of 50 wt% bisGMA and 50wt% TEGDMA consisting of a photo-initiatior and a co-initiator was prepared. Three different filler types, HBB, SBB, and KU, which were either silane surface treated or not, were added to that mixture in eight different volume percentage. It was observed that of the two light sources, more light was absorbed by the composite when the laser light was used. It was also observed that the HBB filler absorbed most light and the KU filler the least.
N/A / Link / Emami , Nazanin / 2005

### Precambrian geodynamics and ore formation

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Compared with present-day global plate tectonics, Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic plate tectonics may have involved faster moving, hotter plates that accumulated less sediment and contained a thinner section of lithospheric mantle. This scenario also fits with the complex geodynamic evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield from 2.06 to 1.78 Ga when rapid accretion of island arcs and several microcontinent–continent collisions in a complex array of orogens was manifested in short-lived but intense orogenies involving voluminous magmatism. With a few exceptions, all major ore deposits formed in specific tectonic settings between 2.06 and 1.78 Ga and thus a strong geodynamic control on ore deposit formation is suggested. All orogenic gold deposits formed syn- to post-peak metamorphism and their timing reflects the orogenic younging of the shield towards the SW and west. Most orogenic gold deposits formed during periods of crustal shortening with peaks at 2.72 to 2.67, 1.90 to 1.86 and 1.85 to 1.79 Ga. The ca. 2.5 to2.4 Ga Ni–Cu ± PGE deposits formed both as part of layered igneous complexes and associated with mafic volcanism, in basins formed during rifting of the Archaean craton at ca. 2.5 to 2.4 Ga. Svecokarelian ca. 1.89 to 1.88 Ga Ni–Cu deposits are related to mafic–ultramafic rocks intruded along linear belts at the accretionary margins of microcratons. All major VMS deposits in the Fennoscandian Shield formed between 1.97 and 1.88 Ga, in extensional settings, prior to basin inversion and accretion. The oldest “Cyprus-type” deposits were obducted onto the Archaean continent during the onset of convergence. The Pyhäsalmi VMS deposits formed at 1.93 to 1.91 Ga in primitive, bimodal arc complexes during extension of the arc. In contrast, the Skellefte VMS deposits are 20 to 30 million years younger and formed in a strongly extensional intra-arc region that developed on continental or mature arc crust. Deposits in the Bergslagen–Uusimaa belt are similar in age to the Skellefte deposits and formed in a microcraton that collided with the Karelian craton at ca. 1.88 to 1.87 Ga. The Bergslagen–Uusimaa belt is interpreted as an intra-continental, or continental margin back-arc, extensional region developed on older continental crust. Iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG) deposits are diverse in style. At least the oldest mineralizing stages, at ca. 1.88 Ga, are coeval with calc-alkaline to monzonitic magmatism and coeval and possibly cogenetic subaerial volcanism more akin to continental arcs or to magmatic arcs inboard of the active subduction zone. Younger mineralization of similar style took place when S-type magmatism occurred at ca. 1.80 to 1.77 Ga during cratonization distal to the active N–S-trending subduction zone in the west. Possibly, interaction of magmatic fluids with evaporitic sequences in older rift sequences was important for ore formation. Finally, the large volumes of anorthositic magmas that characterize the Sveconorwegian Orogeny formed a major concentration of Ti in the SW part of the Sveconorwegian orogenic belt under granulite facies conditions, about 40 million years after the last regional deformation of the Sveconorwegian Orogeny, between ca. 930 and 920 Ma.
N/A / Link / Weihed , Pär / 2005

### Can research on vocational education and training (VET) still be progressive?

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
3-03910-345-8 / Link / Lindgren , Antony / 2004

### A study of some constants characterizing the weighted Hardy inequality

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
The modern form of Hardy's inequality means that we have a necessary and sufficient condition on the weights $u$ and~$v$ on $[0,b]$ so that the mapping $$H:L^p(0,b;v)\rightarrow L^q(0,b;u)$$ is continuous, where $Hf(x)=\int_{0}^xf(t)\,dt$ is the Hardy operator. We consider the case \$1
N/A / Link / Kufner , Alois / 2004

### Metaphorical pain language among fibromyalgia patients

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
55-9 AB - Fourteen women with fibromyalgia described their pain experiences using words indicating a model of pain that presented pain as an aggressive physical deformation and a torture-like experience. Metaphorical expressions were used which was seen as a means for enabling the patients to disclose tacit knowledge. The pain experience was narrated as being steady and without any distinct bodily location. Only causes explaining the present aggravation of the pain and treatment leading to a temporary relief were related.
N/A / Link / Söderberg , Siv / 1995

### Effective development of dynamic systems

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
This licentiate thesis deals with effective simulation of multibody dynamic systems in the product development process. Previous work to make simulation more effective has concentrated on developing faster calculation methods. Instead, this approach is to make the process of multibody dynamics simulation more effective by structuring of products, simulation models and their usage. Efforts have been made to clarify how computer tools are used in product development in industry today. Insight into the two domains of product development and multibody dynamics is given. These domains have traditionally been separated but the introduction of concurrent engineering and faster computers puts new demands on the integration of computer support and analysis in the development process. A proposal for performing the multibody dynamics methodology in a modular way in the product development process is given based on the performed work.

### The competition between coal and natural gas

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Söderholm , Patrik / 1996

### Review of operation of urban drainage systems in cold weather

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Cold climate imposes special requirements on urban drainage systems, arising from extended storage of precipitation and pollutants in the catchment snowpack, processes occurring in the snowpack, and changes in catchment surface and transport network by snow and ice. Consequently, the resulting catchment response and runoff quantity differ from those experienced in snow- and ice-free seasons. Sources of pollutants entering urban snowpacks include airborne fallout, pavement and roadside deposits, and applications of de-icing and anti-skid agents. In the snowpack, snow, water and chemicals are subject to various processes, which affect their movement through the pack and eventual release during the melting process. Soluble constituents are flushed from the snowpack early during the melt; hydrophobic substances generally stay in the pack until the very end of melt and coarse solids with adsorbed pollutants stay on the ground after the melt is finished. The impacts of snowmelt on receiving waters have been measured mostly by the snowmelt chemical composition and inferences about its environmental significance. Recently, snowmelt has been tested by standard bioassays and often found toxic. Toxicity was attributed mostly to chloride and trace metals, and contributed to reduced diversity of benthic and plant communities. Thus, snowmelt and winter runoff discharged from urban drainage threaten aquatic ecosystems in many locations and require further studies with respect to advancing their understanding and development of best management practices.
N/A / Link / Marsalek , J. / 2003

### Dissolved and particle-bound substances in urban snow

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
In order to create a picture of the pollutant pathways for snow in urban areas, snow samples were collected in the city of Lulea, northern Sweden. Sampling sites were chosen in the city centre and in a housing area three different sites in each area. Snow samples were collected during the whole winter of 1995. The results showed that the amounts of dissolved substances as percentages of the total amounts varied according to time, site and the type of substance. For the sites along the roadsides in the city centre, the amounts that were in solution were less than 1% of the lead, 2.5% of the phosphorus, 11% of the copper, and 18% of the zinc. For the site with no-traffic, the dissolved fractions were considerably higher. In order to create a picture of the pollutant pathways for snow in urban areas, snow samples were collected in the city of Lulea northern Sweden. Sampling sites were chosen in the city centre and in a housing area - three different sites in each area. Snow samples were collected during the whole winter of 1995. The results showed that the amounts of dissolved substances as percentages of the total amounts varied according to time, site and the type of substance. For the sites along the roadsides in the city centre, the amounts that were in solution were less than 1% of the lead, 2.5% of the phosphorus, 11% of the copper, and 18% of the zinc. For the site with no-traffic, the dissolved fractions were considerably higher
N/A / Link / Viklander , Maria / 1999

### Struggling for dignity

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common chronic pain syndrome with an obscure etiology, which mostly afflicts middle-aged women. In this study, 14 women with FM were interviewed about the meaning of living with the illness. A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyze and interpret the interview texts. The findings show that being a woman with FM means living a life greatly influenced by the illness in various ways. The women's experiences of living with FM were presented in three major interlaced themes: loss of freedom, threat to integrity, and a struggle to achieve relief and understanding. This study highlights the importance of meeting people suffering in illness with respect for their human dignity. The care of women with FM must empower the women to bring to bear their own resources so that they can manage to live with the illness.
N/A / Link / Söderberg , Siv / 1999

### Mobile robot navigation using non-contact sensors

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
This thesis concerns localization and control of mobile robots using range measurements from optronic sensors, in particular scanning time-of-flight lasers. The thesis covers the localization algorithms, on-line sensor calibration and tele-operation for semi-autonomous control of mobile robots. A real-world application of an autonomous mobile robot equipped with an arm for surface finishing operations is also developed. The Range Weighted Hough/Radon transform is introduced for robust detection of walls and extraction of geometric parameters. Thus a robot can automatically create a map of its environment and update it using an extended Kalman filter. The required association of observations with the map features uses a Bayesian classifier. New walls are added to the map as they are observed and classified as new. Navigation is performed with typical fluctuations of 1 cm and 1 degree (standard deviation) at speeds of 0.5 m/s. The navigation is robust even in cluttered environments and with several persons moving around. Sheet-of-light range cameras have also been tested for mobile robot navigation. A calibration algorithm for simultaneous calibration and localization integrates the calibration into the localization system. The only absolute reference needed by the calibration algorithm is the relative motion of the robot. The resulting system performs calibration during normal operation without lowering the localization performance. The algorithms above were applied to two applications: - A mobile robot capable of autonomously spray-plastering the walls and ceiling of a room. The prototype was successfully tested at construction sites. - A semi-autonomous robot tele-operated using tele-commands. The tele- commands include navigation along corridors, through open doors, following walking persons and automatic map generation of the remote site.
N/A / Link / Forsberg , Johan / 1998

### Snow deposit melt and atmospheric icing

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Snow deposit melt should be included when dealing with urban run off. Every winter structures experience atmospheric icing. The objective was to develop physically sound models based on weather station data for estimating snow melt and atmospheric icing. Snow deposit melt may be described by a frustum of a cone, that shrinks with a constant density. The energy budget model includes all major energy terms and precipitation. The modified degree day method includes top and side areas and different degree day coefficients of winter and spring. Volume changes and run off were well predicted. Each winter at least two in cloud icing events occurred at a test mast. Reasonable agreement between the model and the measurements was found, both regarding the timing of the icing events and the overall loads.
N/A / Link / Sundin , Eva / 1998

### Deponierungsstrategie, Versuchsfelder und die Zukunft

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
N/A / Link / Lagerkvist , Anders / 1995

### Analysis of initial decay rate in relation to estimates of loss factor and equivalent mass in experimental SEA

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
The initial decay rate for single and coupled plates is studied in relation to the consistency of the loss factors between the energy and decay methods. It is confirmed that a shorter decay range of the first 10 dB decay, rather than two larger decay intervals from 0 to -30 dB or from -5 to -35 dB, gives a much better agreement between the methods. Mean free path time is introduced to facilitate the selection of the initial decay interval and the initial point of reverberation decay. It is found, in general, that to obtain a small spatial variation of the initial decay rate, at least four modes per band are needed. The repeatability of the associated loss factor can be made within +/-1 dB with 95 percent confidence level. In addition, the initial decay rate is applied to investigate the property of equivalent mass. It is verified experimentally that the strong coupling has a significant influence on initial decay rate and equivalent mass. It is shown that the equivalent mass has to be used for the estimation of total energy of a complex subsystem where only a limited number of measurement points can be selected and only a part of the subsystem can be accessible for the measurement. It is also explained why the equivalent mass can be larger than the actual mass for a complex subsystem.
N/A / Link / Wu , Lie / 1996

### Predicting impact sound insulation of wooden joist floors

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
1-87308-291-6 / Link / Shi , Wanqing / 1996

### Force transducer based on measurement of mean strain in a compact body

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
A force transducer based on measurement of mean strain in a body has been developed. The transducer can be made stiff and compact and is therefore suitable for measurement of impact forces as well as static forces. An experimental test of a simple first prototype was performed using both static and impact loads with different distributions over the load-carrying area of the transducer. The results of the experiments show that the requirement of insensitivity to differences in load distribution is acceptably fulfilled. Improvements are expected to be possible if the transducer is made in a more accurate way.
N/A / Link / Sundin , Karl-Gustaf / 1989

### Measurement of shape by using projected random patterns and temporal digital speckle photography

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Projected random patterns have been used to measure the shape of discontinuous objects. A sequence of independent random patterns are projected onto the object. These images are analyzed by use of the technique called temporal digital speckle photography (DSP) that is introduced here. With temporal DSP the spatial resolution of the shape measurement is improved considerably compared with previously reported results with projected random patterns. A calibration procedure is described that uses a sequence of independent random patterns to calibrate measurement volume. As a result, independent space coordinates for each subimage are obtained. The accuracy is of the order of 1/1000 of the field of view where a subimage size of 8 pixels seems to be a good compromise between reliability and spatial resolution. The technique is illustrated with a measurement of an electrical plug and a 9-V battery
N/A / Link / Sjödahl , Mikael / 1999

### Stereoscopic digital speckle photography system for 3-D displacement field measurements

Luleå tekniska universitet Övrigt
Stereoscopic digital speckle photography offers a technique to measure object shapes and 3-D displacement fields in experimental mechanics. The system measures the displacement of a random white light speckle pattern, which somehow is present on the object surface, using digital correlation. This paper describes a general physical model for stereo imaging systems. A camera calibration algorithm, which takes the distortion in the lenses into account, is also presented and evaluated by real experiments. Standard deviations of small deformations as low as 1% of the pixel size for in-plane deformations and 6% of the pixel size for the out-of-plane component are reported. Using the calibration algorithm described, the main source of errors is random errors originating from the correlation algorithm.
N/A / Link / Synnergren , Per / 1999